Shadow and Reality
The Philosophical and Religious Background of the Epistle to the Hebrews
Peter J. Blackburn, New Testament Honours, 1965

Because of its length, this thesis is available as 1 large PDF file [856k] or five smaller PDF files. This enables Hebrew and Greek to be displayed correctly. (The latest Acrobat Reader is available FREE from Adobe.) The following synopsis is part of the first file. It is presented here to give an indication of the content of the five files.

File 1 [PDF 30k]
Title Page

File 2 [PDF 269k]
I. Hebrews and Philonism
(a) Allegorism
Growth of a Greek allegorical tradition Philo's allegorism
The Melchizedek theme in Hebrews
Allegory and typology
(b) Use of the Septuagint
Exactness of quotation
Text of LXX used
Manner of citation
Alleged Alexandrianisms
Words common to Hebrews and Philo
(d) Thought-Forms
Philosophical presuppositions
Platonic Theory of Ideas and Eschatological Emphasis
"The living Word of God"
(e) Summary

File 3 [PDF 238k]
II. Hebrews and Qumran
(a) Biblical Exegesis
pesher method of interpretation
Pesher and the exegesis in Heb. 10.37-39
The relation of ch. 11 to the exegesis in 10.37-39
Ch. 11 and Stephen's speech in Acts 7
Qumran use of O.T. quotation apart from the commentaries
Introductory formulae in Qumran literature
Possible use of
testimonia in Qumran and Hebrews
(b) Attitude to Sacrifices, Temple and Priesthood
Testimony of Philo and Josephus
Qumran emphasis on "superior purifications" and on "spiritual sacrifices"
Emphasis of Hebrews on the imperfection of the
Temple or Tabernacle. The pilgrim people
Qumran and the corruption of the Jerusalem priesthood
Hebrews and the imperfection of the priesthood
Cullmann's hypothesis - John (Hebrews), Stephen, Qumran
Spicq's hypothesis - Hebrews, Apollos, John the Baptist, the Hellenists, Qumran
(c) Messianic Expectations
The Messiahs of Aaron and Israel
The Melchizekian Messiah - priest and king
The concept of royal priesthood
(d)The New Covenant
New Covenant and eschatology at Qumran
The basis of the New Covenant in Hebrews

File 4 [PDF 299k]
III. Hebrews and Early Christianity
(a) The Primitive Tradition
Synoptic tradition - "temptations", purification of the Temple, the rent veil of the Temple, suffering "outside the gate"
Relation to the apostolic
Relation to primitive eschatology
(b) Paulinism
Divergences of detail and theological emphasis
Correspondences in Christology
Further parallels
(c) Lucan Writings
Styles of Luke-Acts and Hebrews
Westcott's and Jones' lists of words in common
Significant parallels
Minor details indicating a similarity of fact or detail
Emphasis on the ascension
(d) The Johannine Literature
The concept of Law
The humanity and divinity of Jesus
The prologues to the Fourth Gospel and to Hebrews
(e) Summary

File 5 [PDF 38k]

© Peter J. Blackburn, 1965, 2000